Exogenous ketones: senseless hype or miracles?

Chris From is currently changing the Tour de France race with them. After the US sports world, they are now defeating Germany – but what can external ketones do? What are they good at, and what kinds are there and do they deserve it? Overview.

Today’s post is guest post for Matias Corrado, Msc, CFA and co-founder of Daily Endurance. This article is somewhat more technical and advanced, but is currently the most detailed article on best exogenous ketones in Germany.

I was always passionate about perseverance. What makes people more flexible. Now, after 10 years of experience in the physical and mental area, I decided to put things on paper. “

What are ketones?

Researchers believe that humans and many other animal species have developed the ability to produce ketones (or ketogenic bodies) to increase survival in times of caloric depression. Ketones are beneficial for our muscles, our brains, and other tissues in times of stress – for example, when we intentionally limit calories because we fast or cut carbohydrates from our diet or endurance.

Ketones are formed in the liver when glycogen stores (“sugar stores”) are depleted. This is usually done during a ketogenic diet (high-fat and very low carbohydrates), or an Atkins diet or fasting to provide the body with an alternative energy source for carbohydrates [2]. In the first place, ketones are an alternative to the brain that cannot burn fat. The heart, muscles, and other tissue types are also happy with ketones.

When someone follows a keto diet (also known as a very low-carb diet or VLCKD), it puts them in a metabolic condition called ketosis. Most low-carb diets do not increase the ketogenic level, only a ketogenic diet can do that. To stay in the ketosis, you must get 70-80 percent of your daily calories from fat, no more than 20-25 percent of your calories from protein, and no more than 5-10 percent of your carbs daily.

The human body produces three types of self-ketones

  • Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). The proportion of total ketones in the blood is about 70 percent.
  • Acetocetate (ACAC). This is measured by urine strips (about 25 percent).
  • Acetone. (A by-product of the breakdown of acetate acetate, but it can still be considered as ketone)

Beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is the most common type of ketone we produce and helps save most of the energy when the diet is virtually free of all carbohydrates (see Eating Without Carbohydrates). While there are three types of ketone bodies, the ketones found in external ketogenic preparations are usually only or mainly BHB.

Ketosis and keto acidosis – the difference

Doctors often warn of ketosis because it overloads the body and threatens life. If this is true, no one will be able to fast for a few days, but he will be killed.

What is often mixed with ketosis is ketoacidosis. It occurs in type 1 diabetes and is actually life threatening. But it has nothing to do with natural ketosis:

  • During ketosis, the ketogenic levels in the blood reach a concentration of 1-6 mm.
  • With ketoacidosis, blood values ​​reach a concentration of 16 to 30 mm. This exaggerates the blood – a life threatening condition.
  • Classic ketosis is not dangerous and can easily be maintained for several months to years.

What is the difference between internal and external ketones?

It means that the body can produce itself – as in ketosis, self-origin ketones.

Ketogenic bodies are not a natural intermediate in the decomposition of fatty acids, but they are formed with special reactions in order to work with free fatty acids as an easily oxidizing fuel in different tissues when the glucose supply is restricted.

Outside, we go beyond the internal production of ketone bodies and the physiological state with the energy requirements for ketones production. We get the benefits of ketones without the requirement for ketosis.

Recursive chemistry: there is always a split between internal and external processes. For example, we eat carbohydrates (glucose), so we add glucose externally while our body has various internal tools to produce glucose internally, which is called glucose formation.

But wait, is it safe?

Management of best exogenous ketones bodies can create a unique physiological condition that is not found in normal physiology, since the concentration of glucose and insulin in the blood circulation is relatively normal, while cells may avoid glucose uptake and use. The ketone bodies themselves have a short half-life, and here they are used but unproductive. So production and use are independent of each other.

When we try to change our natural states, the question is often asked, “Is this safe?” The research behind external ketones is very strong. But still at first. It is declared safe (there are some conflicts of interest as most studies come from universities that license Ketone patents for research).

We do not have enough long-term data to provide an absolute case because the use of exogenous ketones began less than a decade ago. But there is a lot of research and you can expect a lot.

  • If exogenous ketones aren’t right for you, we’ve developed a guide on how to teach your body to burn fat.

It is known that anyone who does not take an overdose, but adheres to the recommended number of external ketones, is on the safe side.

What are the benefits of external ketones?

Ketones are the body’s most energy-efficient fuel source and release high amounts of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is often referred to as the “energy coin”.

Benefits of taking external ketones briefly:

  • inflammation. HOHB can bind to GPR109A protein and inhibit the inflammatory compound NLRP3.
  • Oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is usually defined as a condition in which ROS occurs excessively due to excessive production and / or poor removal. Reducing the antioxidant stress and oxidative stress of ketone bodies is widely described both in the laboratory and in vivo, especially in the context of neurological protection.
  • Nervousness. Ketone bodies reduce the level of cell damage, injury, and death, and decrease programmed cell death in neurons and cardiomyocytes.
  • DNA protector. Ketogenic bodies are histone-distillase inhibitors (HDAC). The role of deacetylase inhibitors be DNA protectors. Histone are proteins that play a role in how to transcribe DNA and follow instructions. BHB acts as an HDAC inhibitor that protects against DNA damage from aging. BHB is the Anti-Aging Ketone Body.
  • Helps improve metabolic functions. Ketone esters are also used to increase ketone levels while lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Some animal studies have shown that giving exogenous ketones to rats low blood sugar and insulin, even when mice eat a highly processed diet rich in refined carbohydrates such as cornstarch.
  • Improves mental health signs. Taking exogenous ketogenic supplements, such as ketogenic salts or ketone esters, results in rapid and persistent nutritional changes and metabolic changes that can have potential medicinal effects on central nervous system disorders, including mental disorders such as anxiety and depression.
  • BDNF increased. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is necessary for the development and release of neurotransmitters and brain function. A nutritional factor also associated with cognitive enhancement and relief of depression and anxiety. (Meditation, cold showering, jogging, and medicinal mushrooms can increase BDNF, synergy arises).

Other lifestyle benefits from ketosis

  • It helps in moving to ketosis. Keto flu can occur during the transition to ketosis and lasts 5-14 days. It can cause diarrhea, cramping, nausea, constipation, bad breath, general weakness and rash, but these symptoms subside after they are in the ketosis (or if you supplement with ketones) [6]. External ketones accelerate the transition.
  • It can indirectly help burn fat and lose weight. Taking ketogenic supplements may not lead to weight loss unless you also follow a low-carb diet. It is not a magic formula to lose weight. Ketogenic supplements help keep you in the ketosis, which will help you lose fat and eliminate your appetite.
  • It can improve energy levels and prevent fatigue. External ketones can be used to improve energy levels, performance, physical performance and post-workout recovery.
  • Reducing brain fog (brain fog) and improving mental performance. If glucose is not available in your diet, the brain can metabolize both fatty acids and ketogenic bodies. Studies have shown that ketones benefit from cognitive / mental health by improving cognition in adults with low memory, increased focus, attention and learning.
  • Improves exercise performance and recovery. There is much debate about ketosis and athletic performance. The fact is that it actually improves performance and recovery through physiological processes. But like many things in biology, it’s a compromise. (See later for a more detailed explanation).
  • Protein synthesis and gentle muscles. Our bodies are made up mostly of proteins. This is not only for bodybuilders. Many processes pass through protein synthesis. Usin, which is more readily available with ketones, promotes energy metabolism (glucose uptake, mitochondrial bio-reproduction and fatty acid oxidation) to provide energy for protein synthesis while preventing protein degradation.

Types of external ketones

Beta-hydroxybutyrate is the most active type of ketone that your tissues can use in energy, so it is the ketone that most external ketogenic supplements want to increase.

There are three main types of ketogenic supplement:

  • Ketone salts (sometimes called BHB salts). These are the ketones associated with minerals like sodium, calcium, magnesium or potassium. Minerals in ketogenic salts can help reduce keto-side effects such as muscle weakness and digestive problems. Ketone salts are usually the type used in crushed ketone products that contain a mixture of BHB, sodium, and other ingredients. There is a possibility of an overdose of these salts (!), Usually if they are not following a ketogenic diet as it can be beneficial [5].
  • Ketone esters. These are basically pure ketones that are quickly converted to BHB. This type is not widely used by most consumers but is usually used in research and education. While esters have the advantage of rapidly increasing ketogenic levels in the blood, they are also known to have a terrible taste and cause digestive problems.
  • oils. May include MCT oils / powders. MCT oils are used to enhance ketones and to add the same benefits as those mentioned above. The only difference is that MCTs must first be partitioned into the liver before they can be actively used, making these types of supplements somewhat less effective than ketone salts or their esters. But at least it is internal.

How and why to use external ketones

Ketogenic supplementation can be used between meals or before training to provide you with a quick source of ketones. You can also use ketogenic supplementation to help you return to ketosis more easily and quickly after you have given up your ketogenic diet for a period of time.

It can be taken with food or on an empty stomach, but it may be more effective if you take it on an empty stomach (for example, first thing in the morning) or when fasting. If you are using the supplement ketone powder, try mixing it with water, coffee or tea. Warm or cold Keto drinks / juices can be enjoyed. Some GI (!) Loads are documented. If you experience side effects, change the approach or avoid taking it.

The optimum level of ketogenic levels in the blood ranges between 1.5-5.0 mmol / L, depending on your needs and physical condition and disposal. High-quality ketogenic products can help you raise your ketogenic levels in the blood to 1.5 mmol / L. Correctly following the keto diet can increase the level.

Potential for athletic performance

Personally, except for medical conditions, I think it will play a big role in sports supplements.

“Initial reports indicate that this strategy changes the metabolic response to exercise and improves exercise performance, while other lines of evidence indicate that roles play a role in recovery from exercise.”

This makes sense from a biochemical point of view because it provides the possibility to use glucose and ketones simultaneously. However, it is less clear when it comes to higher density. In this case, there is an improvement in cognitive functioning, which is associated with better overall performance [31].

Since ketone and lactate bodies use the same MCT vectors (unrelated to medium chain triglycerides) to enter cells and produce ATP, it makes sense that the lactate level is lower in the presence of ketone bodies. This dual energy source is more helpful in decreasing density because the body has more flexibility in the use of glucose, fats and ketones.

In theory, providing glucose, consuming fats, increasing lactate accumulation should increase performance, increase muscle protection effects in ketone bodies, reduce oxidative stress because ketone bodies act as a signaling factor in the metabolite, HDAC (HSTD) inhibitor and finally, reduce NLRP3 complex infections To reduce inflammation improves regeneration.

In short, although the data are preliminary, the acute nutritional ketosis that is achieved by replacing the exogenous ketone can change the fuel selection during exercise and achieve performance benefits. This is likely the case with trained individuals who have greater ability to absorb and oxidize ketones during exercise.

In addition, there is a strong physiological basis that suggests potential benefits for training and recreation support.